Poultry Farmers’ Perspective on Poultry Contract Farming Models

0
147
14 steps to write a book

Poultry Farmers’ Perspective on Poultry Contract Farming Models in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria 

ABSTRACT

The study set out to ascertain the perspectives of poultry farmers on the prevalent model of contract poultry farming in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The study employed the descriptive survey design. Simple random sampling was used to select a sample size of 83 from a population of 557 registered poultry farmers with the Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Agriculture.  A researcher developed instrument titled “Smallholder Poultry Farmers Perception of Contract Farming Questionnaire” (SPFPCFQ) was used for data collection. The instrument was given to three experts for validation. The internal consistency of the instrument was determined through a test-retest process. The validated instrument was pretested on 30 respondents who are part of the study population but not part of the sample. The instrument was administered twice to the same respondents. The scores obtained were correlated and the correlation index gave a reliability index of 0.89. The data generated was analysed using descriptive, Mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions. The hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance using t-test. Findings of the study revealed that the prevalent model of contract farming among smallholder poultry farms in Akwa Ibom State is the informal model. Based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that the prevalent model of poultry contract farming in Akwa Ibom State is the Informal model and that steady market and upfront payment are strong incentives that inspire farmers to engage in contract farming. It is recommended among others that poultry farmers engaged in informal contract model should endeavour to get the specifics of commitment by clients; this will help to reduce risks.

KEYWORDS: Smallholder Farmers, Eggs and Poultry Meat, Poultry Demand and Supply, Contract Farming Models, Profitability

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Poultry are chickens, ducks, geese, guinea fowls, turkeys and other related birds kept for meat and egg. Poultry farming is the process of raising domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food. Poultry are farmed in great numbers, with chickens being the most numerous.  The Nigerian poultry industry in particular has been rapidly expanding in recent years and is therefore one of the most commercialized (capitalized) subsectors of Nigerian agriculture (Heinke, Alexandra & Ludwig, 2015). The popularity of poultry production can be explained by the fact that poultry has many advantages over other livestock. Poultry birds are good converters of feed into useable protein in meat and eggs. The production costs per unit remain relatively low, and the return on investment is high. Therefore, farmers need a relatively small amount of capital to start a poultry farm. Furthermore, poultry meat is very tender and acceptability to consumers is high, regardless of their religious beliefs. Also, the production cycle is quite short, so capital is not tied up over a long period. Finally, eggs, one of the major products of poultry production, are more affordable for the common person than many other sources of animal protein (Aboki, Jongur &  Onu, 2013).

Despite these positive aspects, poultry production has not kept pace with rapidly increasing domestic consumption (Heinke, Alexandra & Ludwig, 2015). This lagging increase in domestic production can be explained by the fact that most producers in Nigeria still employ traditional rural poultry farming systems even though there are marked efforts at modernizing poultry farming. Rural poultry farming is by convention a subsistence system comprising stocks of nonstandard breeds or mixed strains, types and ages. A majority of the farmers operate in these traditional, small-scale structures.

The demand for eggs and poultry meat has significantly increased in recent years across Nigeria. The market for poultry keeps expanding in Nigeria. Supermarkets and big shopping malls have had to fill their shopping racks  with locally produced poultry given the outright ban on imported chicken and the like into the country. Consequently, local production is still keeping pace with demand and suppliers such as supermarkets and poultry marketers have turned to small farm holders for supplies.  As the demand for chicken increases, suppliers have turned to smallholder farms to fill their stocks. This has given rise to new forms of business engagements and encouraged the use of contract farming in poultry.

The practice of farmers raising chickens under contract for poultry processing companies is gaining momentum and is becoming the industry standard in Nigeria.  Contract farming can be defined as an agreement between farmers and processing and/or marketing firms for the production and supply of agricultural products under forward agreement, frequently at predetermined prices (Eaton & Shepherd, 2001).. Contract farming refers to varied formal and informal agreements between producers and processors or buyers. It may include loose buying arrangements, simple purchase agreements and supervised production with input provision, with tied loans and risk coverage.  It has the provision of production support to the farmer in the form of supply of funds, inputs and technical advice; as well as commitment to purchase the produce goods by the buyer. The farmers, on the other hand, commit to providing the agricultural produce of pre-agreed quality and quantity and on the part of the company to purchase the produce. A fundamental feature of contract farming is the shifting of risk from producers to processors since it is a form of futures market. Production and price risks according to Priscilla, Julius & Jonathan (2014) are important features of poultry farming. Risk sharing is one of the widely cited reasons for contracting. Numerous studies of contract farming emphasize risk reduction as a principal incentive for producers to enter in to contracts. Much of the price risk is reduced, in contract farming, by the use of a predetermined price rather than the market price (Martinetz, 2005).

Supermarkets particularly are also increasingly switching from spot market transactions to contractual arrangements with the farmers (Rao & Qaim, 2011). Contract farming has been used for agricultural production for decades but its popularity appears to have been increasing in recent years. Eaton and Shepherd (2001) averred that the use of contracts has become attractive to many farmers because the arrangement can offer both an assured market and access to production support. Contract farming is also of interest to buyers, who seek supplies of products for sale further along the value chain or for processing.

Contract farming falls under the four models of farming arrangements explained by Eaton and Shepherd (2001) namely centralized model, multipartite model, intermediary model and the informal model. The centralized model involves a centralized processor and/or buyer procuring from a large number of small-scale farmers. The cooperation is vertically integrated and, in most cases, involves the provision of several services such as pre-financing of inputs, extension and transportation of produce from the farmer(s) to the buyers’ processing plant. Multipartite contract farming model arises when a combination of two or more organizations (state, private agribusiness firms, international aid agencies or non-governmental organizations) work together to coordinate and manage the cooperation between buyers and farmers. An intermediary model, on the other hand, shows many characteristics of a centralized model with the difference that they act as an intermediary on behalf of another firm. Normally, the intermediaries organize everything on behalf of the final buyer starting with input supply, extension service, payment of the farmers and final product transport. Indeed, handling several thousands of out growers involves significant management effort and therefore it might be economically attractive for a buyer to outsource this task to an intermediary. Lastly, informal arrangements involve casual oral agreements between contracting parties and regularly repeated marketing transactions, but are characterized by the absence of written contracts or equally binding and specifying documents.

Contract farming is becoming an increasingly important aspect of agribusiness, whether the products are purchased by multinationals, smaller companies, government agencies, farmer cooperatives or individual entrepreneurs. The approach would appear to have considerable potential in countries where small-scale agriculture continues to be widespread, as in many cases small-scale farmers can no longer be competitive without access to the services provided by contract farming companies. Contract farming can be structured in a variety of ways depending on the crop, the objectives and resources of the sponsor and the experience of the farmers. Contracting out production is a commercial decision to facilitate an adequate supply within a designated period and at an economic price. Any crop or livestock product can theoretically be contracted out using any of the models; however, certain products favour specific approaches. It is still unclear which of the identified model is best suited for smallholder poultry farming in Akwa Ibom State. Furthermore, farmers perceive contract farming in different ways; this study is intended to ascertain the perceptions of farmers as regards poultry contract farming models.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

While poultry contract farming is gaining momentum in Nigeria, there are differing views as to its impact on the socio-economic status of smallholder poultry farmers. It has been argued that contract farming benefits the small holder farmers since it enables farmers to access ready markets (Rao & Qaim, 2011). Contract farming enhances the income of farmers which they attribute to the economies of scale enjoyed in contract farming. Still, other experts are of the opinion that contract farming is a means of exploiting farmers by the large agribusiness firms due to the unequal bargaining power (Little and Watts, 1994; Singh, 2002). These differing views make contract farming appear as a necessary evil in the production and marketing of certain agricultural commodities. Theoretically, farmers participate in contract production if the benefits of hedging against risk and resolving other idiosyncratic risks and acquiring technical services that such contracts provide outweigh the costs. The nature of market failure and provision of technical services however varies by geographical location and the nature of the market. Local conditions still influence the adoption, practice and the type of contract farming by farmers. Akwa Ibom State heavily consumes poultry meat and eggs. Supply to marketers (road side sellers, shopping malls and traders) is increasing, but not keeping pace with demands as other neighboring States are coming to buy from farmers in Akwa Ibom. The marketers are increasingly turning to poultry contract farming to guarantee supplies and at affordable rates. Contract farming as a developing practice has caused a lot of stir and awe among poultry farmers and educators in Akwa Ibom State, prompting a review of the practice among poultry farmers. The research is aimed at ascertaining the prevalent model of contract farming practiced by poultry farmers in Akwa Ibom state as well as its effects.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of the study is to ascertain the prevalent model of contract farming practiced by poultry farmers in Akwa Ibom state as well as its impacts on poultry farming. Specifically, the research sets out to

  1. Ascertain the Prevalent model of Poultry Contract farming practiced by poultry farmers in Akwa Ibom State.
  2. Identify the factors that Influence Farmers’ Participation in Poultry Contract farming in Akwa Ibom State.
  3. Determine the impacts of poultry Contract Farming on profitability of poultry farmers in Akwa Ibom State.
  4. Enumerate the Challenges Influencing Farmers’ Participation in Poultry Contract farming in Akwa Ibom State.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions were stated for the study

  1. What is the prevalent model of Poultry Contract farming practiced by poultry farmers in Akwa Ibom State?
  2. What Factors Influence Farmers’ Participation in Poultry Contract farming in Akwa Ibom State?
  3. What are the impacts of poultry Contract Farming on profitability of poultry farmers in Akwa Ibom State?
  4. What is the Challenges Influencing Farmers’ Participation in Poultry Contract farming in Akwa Ibom State?

RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The following null hypotheses were tested at .05 alpha level.

  1. Male and female poultry farmers do not differ significantly on the Prevalent model of Poultry Contract farming practiced by poultry farmers in Akwa Ibom State.
  2. Male and female poultry farmers do not differ significantly on the factors that Influence Farmers’ Participation in Poultry Contract farming in Akwa Ibom State.

METHOD

The study employed the descriptive survey design. This study was conducted in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. A cursory look along the streets and towns in Akwa Ibom shows a high consumption rate of poultry. This is evident in the number of traders selling roasted, smoked and fried chicken. There is an increasing smallholder poultry farms scattered all through the State, from the urban to the rural areas. This is helping households augment their income. This study was carried out with the intention of assisting smallholder poultry farmers in Akwa Ibom State maximize the opportunities offered by poultry contract farming. The population for the study is 557, comprising of registered poultry farmers with the Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Agriculture. The sample size is 83, comprising of 45 male and 38 female smallholder poultry farmers. Simple random sampling technique was then employed in determining the respondents for the study.     A researcher developed instrument titled “Smallholder Poultry Farmers Perception of Contract Farming Questionnaire” (SPFPCFQ) was used for data collection. The instrument had five sections. Section A was devoted to demographic variables, Section B, C,D and E elicited information with respect to models of contract farming, productivity of farmers in contract farming, factors influencing participation in contract farming and challenges associated with contract farming respectively. The instrument was a four-point rating scale with options ranging from Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D) and strongly Disagree (SD). The instruments were weighted SA (4), A(3), D(2), and SD(1) respectively.  The instrument had a midpoint of 2.5. Face validation was done for the instrument. The instrument was given to three experts for validation. Two experts from the department of Vocational Education, with majors in Agricultural education and one expert from tests and measurement, all from the Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Uyo, were involved in the validation process. The inputs of the assessors were used to build the final version of the instrument.  The validated instrument was pretested on 30 respondents who are part of the study population but not part of the sample. The internal consistency of the instrument was determined through a test-retest process. The instrument was administered twice to the same respondents but on an interval of two weeks. The scores obtained were correlated and a reliability index of 0.89 was obtained. On the basis of the high reliability index, the instrument was adjudged to be fit for the study. The data generated was analyzed using descriptive, Mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions. The hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance using

PRESENTATION OF RESULTS 

Research Question 1

What is the prevalent model of poultry contract farming practiced by poultry farmers in Akwa Ibom State?

Table 1: Mean Responses on prevalent model of Poultry Contract farming practiced by poultry farmers in Akwa Ibom State

Table 1 shows the means and standard deviations of the models of contract farming that farmers are involved in. The result shows that the model with the highest mean score is the informal model. The informal model has a cluster mean response of 3.68, this was followed by the multipartite model with a cluster mean of 2.58. The nucleus model with a cluster mean of 2.48 followed after the multipartite model. The centralized model has a cluster mean of 2.21 and the intermediary model with a mean of 2.39. This indicates that poultry farmers in Akwa Ibom State are mostly engaged in informal poultry contract farming.  Further analysis shows that most of their patrons are supermarkets, shopping malls and traders who roast chickens on the wayside. Therefore, the prevalent model of poultry contract farming among poultry farmers in Akwa Ibom State is informal poultry contract farming. 

Research Question 2

What factors influence farmers’ participation in poultry contract farming in Akwa Ibom State

Table 2: Mean responses on factors influencing farmers’ participation in poultry contract farming in Akwa Ibom State

Table 2 shows the item by item analysis of factors influencing farmers’ participation in poultry contract farming. The result shows that all the items have mean responses above 2.50, the midpoint. This indicates that all the items are taken as factors essential and influential for farmers’ participation in poultry contract farming in Akwa Ibom State.

Research Question 3

What are the impacts of poultry contract farming on profitability of poultry farmers in Akwa Ibom State?

Table 3: Mean responses on impacts of poultry contract farming on profitability of poultry farmers in Akwa Ibom State.

Table 3 gives the summary of how contract farming influences profitability. The result shows that all the items have mean responses above 2.50, the midpoint. Since the poultry farmers do not spend money on marketing, it helps their productivity.  When birds are matured and ready for the market, the suppliers come for them. The additional days spent by the birds, cost money, both for feeding and other expenses, such as heating and drugs. This saves cost of feeding and other expenses, including medication. Timely purchase as enshrined by contract farming, helps the farmer avoid such unintended expenses (3.56). The mean (3.41) also shows that the upfront payment allows the farmer purchase vital supplies, such as feeds and drugs. This shows that contract farming influences productivity of poultry farmers positively.

Research Question 4

What are the challenges influencing farmers’ participation in poultry contract farming  in Akwa Ibom State?

Table 4: Mean responses on challenges influencing farmers’ participation in poultry contract farming in Akwa Ibom State.

Table 4 shows the summary of the item analysis of the challenges influencing farmers’ participation in poultry contract farming in Akwa Ibom State. The result shows that all the items have mean responses above the midpoint of 2.50, indicating that all the items were agreed as being challenges faced by poultry farmers in contract farming. The result shows that increased risk was ranked 1st, this was closely followed by indebtedness and overreliance on advances. The 3rd ranked is no mechanism to discourage default. The fourth ranked is domination by monopolies and the fifth is lack of competitive market, closely followed by lack of a comprehensive crop insurance scheme to protect against natural calamities

Testing of Null Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance

  1. Male and female poultry farmers do not differ significantly on the prevalent model of poultry contract farming practiced by poultry farmers in Akwa Ibom  State.

Table 5: Result of t-test analysis of responses on challenges influencing farmers’ participation in poultry contract farming in Akwa Ibom State

Table 5 gives the summary of the t-test analysis. The result shows that the mean response for men and women are 3.60 and 3.66 respectively. The calculated t-value (tcal) is 1.34 at 81 degree of freedom and .05 alpha level, while the critical t (tcrit) is 2.01. Since the tcal is less than the tcrit, the result is not significant and the null hypothesis is accepted. Thus, Male and female poultry farmers do not differ significantly on the Prevalent model of Poultry Contract farming practiced by poultry farmers in Akwa Ibom State.

  1. Male and female poultry farmers do not differ significantly on the factors that influence farmers’ participation in poultry contract farming in Akwa Ibom State.

Table 6: Result of t-test analysis of responses on factors influencing farmers’ participation in poultry contract farming in Akwa Ibom State

Table 6 gives the summary of the t-test analysis. The result shows that the mean response for men and women are 3.44 and 3.42 respectively. The calculated tvalue (tcal) is 0.94 at 81 degree of freedom and .05 alpha level, while the critical t (tcrit) is 2.01. Since the tcal is less than the tcrit, the result is not significant and the null hypothesis is accepted. Thus, male and female poultry farmers do not differ significantly on the factors that influence farmers’ participation in poultry contract farming in Akwa Ibom State. 

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

The findings of the study are therefore discussed under the following subheadings 

Contract Farming Models and Poultry Farmers Participation

Findings of the study reveals that the prevalent model of poultry contract farming among poultry farmers in Akwa Ibom State is the informal poultry contract farming.  The corresponding hypothesis test shows that Male and female poultry farmers do not differ significantly on the Prevalent model of Poultry Contract farming practiced by poultry farmers in Akwa Ibom State. Thus, affirming the findings of the research question. This finding could be as a result of the model of smallholder farms, who have less than 300 birds, thus, may not be able to handle larger supplies. It could also be as a result of the nature of their principals, in this case, their suppliers, who are mostly supermarkets, shopping malls and wayside sellers of chicken. These contracts buyers have need for small suppliers at a time and may not fancy a big contract per se. This finding is akin to Coulter, Good land, Tallontire and String fellow (1999) which found that Contract farming is a way of allowing the poor to participate in a larger market. It can also be described as initiatives taken by agribusinesses to secure access to small holders’ production.

Factors Influencing Poultry Farmers Participation in Contract Farming

Findings of the study identify some of the factors influencing poultry farmers participation in contract farming. These includes Inputs and production services are often supplied by the sponsor, upfront payments, steady market, Risk sharing nature of contract farming, Guaranteed and fixed pricing structures and marketing factors. The corresponding hypothesis shows male and female poultry farmers do not differ significantly on the factors that Influence Farmers’ Participation in Poultry Contract farming in Akwa Ibom State. This shows that there are obvious incentives and advantages to contract farming that propel farmers to enter the scheme. This finding is in line with FAO (2001) report which showed that Well-managed contract farming has proven to be effective in linking the small sector to sources of extensive advice, mechanization, inputs and credit, and to guaranteed and profitable markets for the products. Furthermore, Udoh (2010) found  that the poultry production is highly dependent on knowledge and adoption of improved technology and for sustainability and growth as well as a technical input it must be availed. This findings is also corroborated by Owuor and Bebe (2009) which indicated that linkages between farmers and urban agribusinesses should be established in order to minimize farm gate and urban livestock prices differentials. Value addition should be encouraged and enhanced in order to promote market oriented smallholder agriculture in developing countries. Value added products help increase productivity and returns from investments. Thus, where there are assured markets and commitments from buyers as advocated by contract farming, then, marketing of poultry products becomes an essential factor in entering into any poultry contract farming agreement.

Contract Farming and Productivity of Poultry Farmers

The result of analysing shows that contract farming influences productivity of poultry farmers positively. When birds are matured and ready for the market, the suppliers come for them. The additional days spent by the birds, cost money, both for feeding and other expenses, such as heating and drugs. Timely purchase as enshrined by contract farming, helps the farmer avoid such unintended expenses. The result also shows that the upfront payment allows the farmer purchase vital supplies, such as feeds and drugs. This shows that contract farming influences productivity of poultry farmers positively. This finding is supported by Simmons et al. (2005).

According to the results of the study of contract farming in some regions of Indonesia, it positively affected welfare and reduced absolute poverty. Results of a comparative study in Bangladesh show that although the independent farmers were able to get higher prices as compared with the contract farmers, contract farmers were better off in getting net return (Begum 2005). Another analysis in Thailand based on a survey of 445 rice farmers shows that organic rice contract farming is more profitable than conventional non-contract farming by a significant margin for all scales of production. The finding reveals that a combination of contract and organic farming is effective in improving the profitability and efficiency in rice production (Setboonsarng 2006).

Challenges Influencing Farmers’ Participation in Poultry Contract Farming in Akwa Ibom State

The result of analysis ranked the challenges faced by farmers participating in contract farming. The result shows that increased risk was ranked 1st, this was closely followed by indebtedness and overreliance on advances. The 3rd ranked is no mechanism to discourage default. The fourth ranked is domination by monopolies and the fifth is lack of competitive market, closely followed by lack of a comprehensive crop insurance scheme to protect against natural calamities. The corresponding hypothesis showed that Male and female poultry farmers do not differ significantly on the challenges influencing farmers’ participation in poultry contract farming in Akwa Ibom State. Smallholder poultry farms are beset with a lot of uncertainties and while contract farming might help introduce some form of stability, it also comes with its challenges, particularly, informal contract farming. Under the informal contract farming model, a poultry farmer cannot sue a supplier for defaulting, neither can the risks be shared equally. Where a bird is reserved for a supplier and the bird dies,  the farmer incurs the loss. This findings is in line with Poulton, Dorward and Kydd (1997) which identified the following as factors plaguing farmers in contract farming increased risk; unsuitable technology and crop incompatibility; manipulation of quotas and quality specifications; corruption; domination by monopolies; and indebtedness and overreliance on advances. 

CONCLUSION

Based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that the prevalent model of poultry contract farming in Akwa Ibom State is the Informal model. Here, farmers are engaged by suppliers who are committed to buying their produce seasonally but steadily as long as they can supply. Furthermore, it is concluded that steady market and upfront payment are strong incentives that inspires farmers to engage in contract farming.  Increased risks and indebtedness and overreliance on advances are some of the challenges faced by farmers in contract farming.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made:

  1. Akwa Ibom Agricultural Development programme through the agricultural extension workers should endeavour to train small holder farmers on marketing their poultry produce using informal contract farming method.
  2. Agricultural Extension workers should endeavour to train and upskill smallholder poultry farmers on the nature of contracts and how they can get the best out of contract poultry farming.
  3. Poultry farmers should exercise restraint not to incur loss of unintended expenditure in view of advances and upfront payment by clients.
  4. Poultry farmers engaged in informal contract model, should endeavour to get the specifics of commitment by clients, this will help to reduce risks.

REFERENCES

Aboki, E., Jongur, A. A. & Onu, J. I. (2013). Productivity and technical efficiency of family poultry production in Kurmi local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Sustainability 4(1):52-66.

Adene, D.F. & Oguntade, A.E. (2006). The structure and importance of the commercial and village-based poultry systems in Nigeria. Rome FAO.

Begum, I.A., Osanami, F. &  Kondo, T. (2005). Performance of vertically integrated contract and independent poultry farms in Bangladesh: A comparative study, The Review of Agricultural Economics, 6(3): 101-117.

Coulter, J., Goodland, A., Tallontire, A.& Stringfellow, R.(1999). Marrying cooperation and contract farming for service provision in a liberalizing sub-saharan Africa, ODI Natural Resource Perspectives, issue 48

Eaton, C. & Shepherd, A.W. (2001). Contract farming: partnership for growth. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin 145. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Heinke, H., Alexandra, C. & Ludwig, T.(2015).  The poultry market in nigeria: market structures and potential for investment in the market. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 18(A) 197-222.

Little, P. D. (1994). The development question. In P.D. Little & M.J. Watts, eds. Living under contract: contract farming and agrarian transformation in sub-Saharan Africa, pp 216-257.Madison: University of Wisconsin Press

Little, P. & Watts, M.(1994).Living Under Contract: Contract Farming And Agrarian Transformation In Sub-Saharan Africa. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Martinetz, S. (2005). Vertical coordination of marketing systems: Lessons learned from the poultry, egg and pork industries. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Agriculture.

Poulton, C., Dorward, A., & Kydd, J. (1997). Interlocking transactions: market alternatives for RNR services? Monograph for Department of Agricultural Economics and Business Management, Wye College, University of London, London.

Priscilla W., Julius, J. &  Jonathan M. (2014).Blessing or evil? contract farming, smallholder poultry production and household welfare in Kenya. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 53 (4): 319-340.

Rao, E. J. O. & Qaim, M. (2011):. Supermarkets, farm household income and poverty: Insights from Kenya. World Development 39 (5): 784-796.

Setboonsarng, S.(2008). Global partnerships in poverty reduction: Contract farming and regional cooperation, ADB Institute Discussion Paper No. 89.

Singh, S. (2002). Contracting out solutions: political economy of contract farming in the Indian Punjab. World Development 30 (9): 1621-1638.

Udoh. A. J,(2010). Adoption of improved poultry technologies by poor resource farmers in Nigeria: implications to meat protein availability in the 21st century. African Scientist 11(2): 1595-6881. 

AUTHORS: ESSIEN, ETOP NKEREUWEM, Ph.D AND OFFIONG, ANTHONY A., Ph.D

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here