Effects of Computer Simulation and Blended Learning on Biology Students’ Academic Achievement in Nervous Coordination

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Effects of Computer Simulation and Blended Learning on Biology Students’ Academic Achievement in Nervous Coordination in Abak Education Zone, Akwa Ibom State 

ABSTRACT

This study examined effects of computer simulation and blended learning on Biology students’ academic achievement on the concept of Nervous coordination. Non-randomized pre-test, post-test, control group design was used for the study. The population of the study was three thousand, eight hundred and twenty (3,820) Senior Secondary Three (SS3) Biology students. The sample consisted of 171 Biology students (79 males and 92 females) drawn from 3 co-educational public secondary schools in Abak Education Zone, Akwa Ibom State. Three research questions and hypotheses were raised and formulated to guide the study and were tested at .05 level of significance. Researchers made test, Biology Achievement Test in Nervous coordination (BATNC) with a reliability coefficient of 0.88 was used after validation using Kuder- Richardson formula-20. The Biology students in the 3 secondary schools were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. In each group, the students were taught by the research assistants in their intact classroom setting using validated researchers’ made lesson notes for the respective groups. The data generated from pre-test and post-test were analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The findings from results of data analysis showed that students taught nervous coordination using blended learning teaching strategy significantly achieved the concept when compared with those taught using computer simulation and conventional teaching strategies. Also students taught using computer simulation strategy significantly achieved the concept when compared with those taught using conventional teaching strategy, and that female student who were taught nervous coordination had significant higher achievement than their male counterparts. Based on the findings, it was recommended that Biology teachers should make use of blended learning in the teaching of nervous coordination in secondary schools.

KEYWORDS: Computer Simulation, Blended Learning, Biology, Academic Achievement, Nervous Coordination 

INTRODUCTION

The aim of science teaching in secondary schools is to promote the understanding of the concepts being taught with a view to applying such knowledge in real life situation. Science learning is expected to produce individuals capable of solving their problems and that of the society. Such individual is expected to be self- confident and self-reliant. The National Policy on Education (FRN, 2013) emphasized that science taught in schools should be such that will have meaning and relevance to the needs of the students and society and provide the child the opportunity to explore, intercept and interact with certain scientific processes going on in the environment. Biology is one of the basic science subjects in Nigerian secondary school education system and it is a core subject for science students. It is a major requirement for millions of secondary school students for successful career in the medical and related fields. Udoh and Eton (2018) opined that the knowledge of Biology promotes acquisition of knowledge, prevent and cure diseases, gives ideas about genetic make-up, all geared toward improving the quality of life.

Despite the benefits of Biology, achievement of students in the subject in external Biology examinations still leaves much to be desired (Okon, 2016). The failure rate has remained very high and students’ achievement in Biology in Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE) has been unsatisfactory over many years. Reports of the Chief Examiner of West African Examinations Council, WAEC (2015-2017) in ordinary level Biology showed consistent poor achievement in Biology. Researchers over the years have come up with factors leading to poor achievement of Biology students of which include: study habit, large students’ population to low teachers’ population ratio and teaching approaches. Gibbs (2013) added that unavailability of text books, laboratory apparatus and other learning resources also hinders students’ success in schools. Edet (2016) opined that one of the reasons of students’ poor achievement is that some secondary school science teachers do not make use of appropriate instructional strategy but predominantly using conventional teaching strategy.

Conventional teaching strategy is a teaching without using any activity-based or instructional material by the teacher. It is mainly authoritarian in nature whereby teaching– learning is not based on hands-on activities. In this teaching strategy, teachers often teach the way they were taught sometimes using the same notebooks they used as students. According to Udoh (2015), teachers are expert information providers while the students learn by rote, memorize, regurgitate facts and prepare to reproduce the facts during examinations. Sharma (2012) added that conventional way of science teaching is based on the assumption that students are passive subjects that store what they learnt as the result of repeated practice and reinforcement which may not be used to teach activity based concept such as nervous coordination.

Nervous coordination is a process by which different parts of an animal’s body coordinate the actions of the animal and transmits signals between different parts of its bodyfor proper effectiveness. In other words, nervous coordination is the process by which all the actions of different parts of the body of an organism composed so that they can work together to achieve definite objectives (Michael, 2008). However, all metabolic processes in the body of an organism do not function individually but are all closely linked and dependent on each other for effective functioning. The nervous system of a mammal is made up of two parts: The Central Nervous System (CNS) which consists of the brain and the spinal cords and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) which consist of the rest of the nervous tissues found throughout the body. Idodo-Umeh (2011) added that it consists of the somatic system and autonomic nervous system. Nervous coordination is one of the important concepts in Biology which could be taught to students using appropriate instructional strategies.

Instructional strategies are teaching techniques teachers use to engage students in the learning process in order to help students become independent learners. It helps teachers accomplish teaching– learning tasks and meet educational goals. Akanwa, Ndirika and Udoh (2018)opined that instructional strategies are active approaches that a teacher may take to engage students in the learning process. These strategies drive a teacher’s instruction as they work to meet specific learning objectives and ensure that the students are equipped with the tools they need to be successful. Instructional strategies play vital roles in making teaching and learning more effective in the classroom. Orji and Abolarin (2012) stated that the use of instructional strategy for lesson presentation with visual aids make lessons more practical and more meaningful to the students. Enohuean (2015) added that for effective instructional processes, teaching should be made with visual aids such as computer simulation and blended learning in order to appeal more to senses of perception.

Computer simulation is the use of computer programmme to model real-world phenomena in order to help students gain insights into the behaviour of complex systems. Okon (2016) stated that Computer simulation is a teaching technique that reproduces actual events and processes under test conditions. It helps students to understand invisible conceptual worlds of science through animation which can lead to more concrete understanding of scientific concepts. Computer simulation does not only allow learners to construct and manipulate screen “objects” for exploring underlying concepts, but they also provide learners with the observation and manipulation tools necessary for exploring and testing hypotheses in the simulated world (Udoh, 2015). Combined with graphical representations, computer simulation allows learners to visualize abstract concepts and link them to prior knowledge thereby fostering conceptual learning. Students interacting with an instructional simulation gain a better understanding of a real system. This interactivity provides opportunities for students to modify their mental models by comparing the outputs of the model with their expectations (Udo & Etiubon, 2011).Thus, it is critical to provide teachers with technological skills that could help students’ achievement in the learning process.

Blended learning is an instructional strategy in which students do part of their coursework in class and part of it online to make learning more interesting and accessible for all students. It is a form of education where students receive face to face instruction from a teacher and then instruction from an online component. Udoh, Ado and Essien (2017) defined blended learning as the combination of two different education models, traditional face to face learning and distance learning to improve efficiency in the classroom. Ndirika (2015) defined it as integrating face to face learning and electronic learning or distance learning, using difference learning theories, methodologies and techniques in the same place and supporting the learning with various online technologies during the learning process. According to Rothrauff (2011), blended learning allows teachers to use a combination of digital instruction and one-on-one face time to improve efficiency in the classroom. When students use new technological strategies to work, it improves their comprehension of new concepts, teachers can use the additional class time to give struggling students the individualized attention that they need and can now streamline their instruction to help all students reach their full potentials and to succeed. Udoh, Ado and Essien (2017) added that blended learning strategy of teaching appear to be of value to the learning process of students and could be beneficial for both male and female Biology students.

Gender refers to one’s status of either being a male or femaleand it has become a very important issue among researchers. It is an important factor in the learning process and in educational setting which has been focused upon because of their significance in the development of any nation (Udoh& Eton, 2018). Ndirika (2013) identified gender as a factor that affects students’ academic achievement in science and in Biology in particular. Olasehinde and Olatoye (2014) agreed that gender bias is very prevalent in Nigeria whereby harder tasks are assigned to males while females are given the relatively easy and less demanding tasks. Akanwa, Ndirika and Udoh (2018) reported that gender has no effect on student achievement in science. Etiubon (2011),Bilesani (2010) and Oludipe (2012) found that female subjects were significantly better than their male counterparts in science while Cheema andMirza (2013) and Ekeh (2004) found that male subjects were significantly better than their female counterparts in science. The consensus among science educators is that some instructional strategies are gender bias while some are gender friendly. Since the degree of gender related differences in learning vary from one method of instruction to the other as well as the concept being learnt, there is a great need to see if innovative teaching strategies could enhance students’ academic achievement in Biology in external examinations in secondary schools, hence this study, effects of computer simulation and blended learning on Biology students’ academic achievement in Nervous coordination.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

One of the problems in the teaching of Biology has been poor achievement of students in the subject in external examinations. WAEC Chief Examiner’s reports in Biology (2016-2017) showed poor achievements of students in the subject and this is of great concern to parents, researchers and well-meaning Nigerians. Researchers in Biology education have identified reasons for poor achievement in Biology to be poor teaching methods and inadequate use of instructional materials which is predominantly conventional teaching approach that is teacher-centered. This could be said that teacher-centered classroom does not effectively equip the students with enough techniques to aid their level of understanding. This is because conventional teaching approach does not engage students in the class activities that would help students acquire the required skills. In view of the deterioration in students’ learning outcome in Biology, it is therefore pertinent at this time when high premium is placed on science and technology as the bedrock of national development and advancement to find out if computer simulation and blended learning can enhance learning outcomes of Biology students in the difficult concept of nervous coordination. 

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following questions were raised to guide the study.

  1. What difference exists among the achievement mean scores of Biology students taught nervous coordination using computer simulation, blended learning and those taught with conventional teaching strategies?
  2. What difference exists between the achievement mean scores of male and female Biology students taught nervous coordination using computer simulation teaching strategy?
  3. What difference exist between the achievement mean scores of male and female Biology students taught nervous coordination using blended learning teaching strategy?

RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study at 0.05 level of significance.

  1. There is no significant difference among the achievement mean scores of Biology students taught nervous coordination using computer simulation, blended learning and those taught with conventional teaching strategies.
  2. There is no significant difference between the achievement mean scores of male and female Biology students taught nervous coordination using computer simulation teaching strategy.
  3. There is no significant difference between the achievement mean scores of male and female Biology students taught nervous coordination using blended learning teaching strategy.

METHODOLOGY

The design adopted for this study was quasi-experimental design. Specifically, non-randomized pretest-posttest control group design with three (3) groups, two (2) experimental groups and a control group. Experimental group one (1) was taught nervous coordination with computer simulation teaching strategy, experimental group two (2) was taught with blended learning teaching strategy and group three (3) was the control group taught with conventional teaching strategy. The design was considered appropriate since the students were taught in their intact classroom setting. The sample of the study was one hundred and seventy one (171) Senior Secondary Three (SS3) Biology students (male and female) from the population of three thousand, eight hundred and twenty (3,820) students for 2018/2019 session from three (3) secondary schools in Abak Education Zone of Akwa Ibom State. The instrument used for data collection was a researchers’ made test, Biology Achievement Test on Nervous coordination (BATNC). The instrument’s reliability was determined by administering it twice to twenty (20) Biology students who were from the population of the study but did not constitute part of the study. A reliability coefficient of 0.88 was obtained using Kuder- Richardson formula-20, indicating that the instrument was reliable.

The Biology teachers from the sampled schools were used as research assistants. The research assistants were trained for five (5) days and they were given detailed instructions with well-articulated lesson packages on the concept of Nervous Coordination. The researchers randomly assigned three (3) classes, two (2) experimental groups and a control group respectively. The teaching of the concept was done by the research assistants in each school from a well-articulated lesson package developed by the researchers using Biology textbooks for two (2) weeks. The lesson packages prepared by the researchers using the senior secondary biology curriculum were used in order to standardize the concept taught by the research assistants. The pre-test, BATNC was administered before the teaching of the concept (Nervous Coordination) and after the teaching, post-test was administered to the three (3) groups. All activities in the three (3) groups were strictly supervised by the researchers. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation), and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) based on its ability to control for the effect of pre-test.  All the hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance.

RESULTS

Research Question One

What difference exists among the mean achievement scores of Biology students taught nervous coordination using computer simulation, blended learning and conventional method?

Table 1: Mean and standard deviation scores of students’ pre-test and post-test                        achievement scores taught nervous coordination classified by                                        instructional strategy 

Table 1 shows the mean gain scores of students taught nervous coordination using computer simulation, blended learning and conventional teaching strategies. Students who were taught with blended learning strategy had the highest mean gain score of 50.66 followed by computer simulation teaching strategy with a mean gain score of 43.88 and then conventional teaching strategy with 40.10 as the mean gain score. 

Hypothesis One

There is no significant difference among the achievement mean scores of Biology students taught nervous coordination using computer simulation, blended learning and conventional teaching strategies

Table 2: Summary of Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) of students’ post-test              classified by instructional strategy with pre-test as covariate.  

In Table 2, the calculated Probability value (P-value) .000 of the main effect of instructional strategy is less than the declared Probability value (alpha level) .05. Therefore, the null hypothesis one is rejected. This implied that there exists a significant difference among the mean achievement scores of Biology students taught nervous coordination using computer simulation, blended learning and conventional teaching strategies. In order to determine the direction of significance, the scores were subjected to post hoc analysis as shown in Table 3.

Table 3: Post hoc analysis (LSD) of students’ post-test classified by instructional              strategy with pre-test as covariate 

Table 3 shows the post hoc analysis scores of students taught nervous coordination using computer simulation, blended learning and conventional teaching strategies. It shows a mean difference of 4.03 between the achievements of Biology students taught nervous coordination using computer simulation and conventional teaching strategies, while the achievement of Biology students taught using blended learning and computer simulation strategies recorded a mean difference of 5.60. A mean difference of 9.64 was obtained between the achievements of Biology students taught using blended learning and conventional teaching strategies. The level of significant displayed in Table 3 indicated that students taught using blended learning teaching strategy achieved significantly higher than those taught using computer simulation and conventional strategies. Students who were taught using computer simulation teaching strategy achieved significantly higher than those taught using conventional teaching strategy.

Research Question Two

What difference exists in the academic achievement of male and female students taught nervous coordination using computer simulation teaching strategy?

Table 4:  Male and female students’ pre-test and post-test achievement scores                taught nervous coordination using computer simulation teaching.

In Table 4, the results showed that male students had a mean gain of 44.77 and their female counterparts had a mean gain score of 43.23. The result indicated that male students performed better than their female counterparts when both groups were taught using computer simulation teaching strategy.

Hypothesis Two

There is no significant difference in the academic achievement of male and female students taught nervous coordination using computer simulation teaching strategy

Table 5: Summary of Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) of Biology Students’                                       Achievement Scores Based on Gender Using Pre-test as Covariate.

As shown in Table 5, the calculated P value .475 is greater than alpha level .05. Therefore, null hypothesis two is retained. This implied that there is no significant gender difference on the achievement of Biology students taught nervous coordination using computer simulation teaching.

Research Question Three

What difference exists in the academic achievement of male and female students taught nervous coordination using blended learning teaching strategy?

Table 6: Mean and standard deviation scores of male and female students’ pre-                       test and post-test achievement taught nervous coordination using blended learning teaching strategy 

In Table 6, the results showed that male students had a mean gain of 48.26 and their female counterparts had a mean gain score of 52.23. The result indicated that female students performed better than their male counterparts when both groups were taught using blended learning teaching strategy.

Hypothesis Three

There is no significant difference in the academic achievement of male and female students taught nervous coordination using blended learning teaching strategy.

Table 7: Summary of Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) of students’ academic                          achievement scores classified by gender with pre-test as covariate

As shown in Table 7, the calculated P-value .024 of gender is less than alpha level .05. Therefore, null hypothesis three is rejected. This implied that there is a significant gender difference on the achievement of Biology students taught nervous coordination using blended learning teaching strategy.

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

The findings from post hoc analyses scores of students taught nervous coordination using computer simulation, blended learning and conventional teaching strategies showed that students taught using blended learning teaching strategy significantly achieved the concept when compared with those taught using computer simulation and conventional teaching strategy. Also students taught using computer simulation strategy significantly achieved the concept when compared with those taught using conventional teaching strategy. The reason for the higher academic achievement for blended learning may be due to the fact that blended learning combines two different education models, traditional face to face learning and distance learning to improve efficiency in the classroom. This is in line with Udoh, Ado and Essien (2017), Ndirika (2015) and Rothrauff (2011) who observed that blended learning allows students receive face to face instruction from a teacher and then instruction from an online component to enhance students’ understanding of concepts. When students use new technological strategies to learn, it improves their comprehension of new concepts.

It was also observed that students taught with computer simulation strategy significantly achieved the concept when compared with those taught using conventional teaching strategy. The reason for the higher academic achievement may be that computer simulation teaching strategy allows learners to visualize abstract concepts and link them to prior knowledge thereby fostering conceptual learning to gain a better understanding of a real system. This is in line with Okon (2016), Udoh (2015), Udo and Etiubon (2011), who observed that computer simulation teaching strategy help students to understand invisible conceptual worlds of science through animation which can lead to more concrete understanding of scientific concepts.

The findings of the study on gender showed no significant difference between the achievements of students taught nervous coordination using computer simulation teaching strategy. The observation from the results confirms that both male and female students received the same impact when exposed to computer simulation teaching strategy. This comparable achievement of males and females students observed agreed with Udoh and Etiubon (2016) which showed no significant difference in gender on students’ achievement in science when taught human circulatory system using iconic model and charts. The findings also are in line with Akanwa, Ndirika and Udoh (2018), Fabunmi (2010). This implied that when male and female students are exposed to the same learning environment with appropriate instructional strategy irrespective of gender, they will assimilate faster and perform equally since knowledge has to do with intellectual ability. However, the findings disagreed with Olasehinde and Olatoye (2014) who observed that there is a significant difference in the achievement of male and female students exposed to the use of instructional strategy. The findings also disagreed with Bilesani (2010),Etiubon (2011) and Oludipe (2012) who found that female students achieved significantly better than their male counterparts in chemistry using technological resources in electrolysis. Cheema and Mirza (2013) and Ekeh (2004) also found that male students achieved significantly better than their female counterparts in science.

The findings of the results on gender also showed a significant difference between the academic achievements of students taught nervous coordination using blended learning teaching strategy. The findings revealed that female students who were taught nervous coordination using blended learning teaching strategy had significant higher achievement than males who were taught the same concept using the same teaching strategy. The observation from the results may be that female students pay more attention in class after online interaction with the concept to gain more ideas on the concept than males. The findings are in line with Enohuean (2015) who observed that there is a significant difference in the achievement of male and female students exposed to the use of instructional strategy.  The findings are in line with Etiubon (2011) that female students achieved and retained significantly better than their male counterparts in chemistry using technological resources in electrolysis. However, the findings disagreed with Ekeh (2004) who observed that male students achieved significantly better than their female counterparts in mathematics using science iconic models. The study also disagrees with the findings of Akanwa, Ndirika and Udoh (2018), Fabunmi (2010), Adepoju, (2014), Udoh and Etiubon (2016) who found that there were no significant effects on gender with regards to students’ achievement science.

CONCLUSION

Consequent upon the findings from this study, it is concluded that blended learning teaching strategy have greater enhancing effects on students’ academic achievement than the use of computer simulation teaching strategy. The study also showed that male and female students achieved equally when both gender were taught nervous coordination using computer simulation teaching strategy but showed a significant difference between in male and female students taught nervous coordination using blended learning teaching strategy.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made:

  1. Biology teachers should endeavor to use student-centered teaching strategies such as computer simulation and blended learning to enhance academic achievement in Biology concepts.
  2. Teachers should not consider gender as a significant factor in students’ academic achievement but should encourage both male and female students in their classes toward academic excellence irrespective of gender differences.
  3. Curriculum developers should provide adequate information in the curriculum regarding how computer simulation and blended learning teaching strategies should be used by Biology teachers.

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AUTHORS: UDOH, NSIMENEABASI M AND NDIRIKA, MARYANN C. (Ph.D)

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